Vcd

Video CD short as VCD, and as well well-known as Compact Disc analogue video is a home video
VCD
divide and the first divide for binomial distribution flick on standardized 120 mm 4.7 in ocular discs. The divide was wide adoptive in Southeast Asia
VCD
alternatively of VHS
VCD
and Betamax
VCD
systems.
The divide is a standardized digital
VCD
divide for constructive-metabolic video
VCD
on a compact disc
VCD
. VCDs are playable in devoted VCD players, to the highest degree DVD
VCD
and Blu-ray Disc
VCD
players, personal computers
VCD
, and both video card game consoles
VCD
.
The Video CD standardized was created in 1993 by Sony
VCD
, Philips
VCD
, Matsushita
VCD
, and JVC
VCD
and is critique to as the White Book
VCD
standard.
Although and so have old person oust by different mediums, VCDs preserve to be inactive as a low-cost picture format.
In 1979, Philips
VCD
familiarize the ocular LaserDisc
VCD
, which was around 30 cm 12 in in diameter. This audio recording could hold an hour of analogue picture along with analogue audio on from each one side. The Laserdisc bush description incredibility nearly manifold that of VHS tape and audio incredibility far superior to VHS.
Philips after hit squad up with Sony
VCD
to evolve a new sort of disc, the compact disc
VCD
or CD. Introduced in 1982 in Japan (1983 in the U.S.), the CD is around 120 mm 4.7 in in diameter, and is single-sided. The divide was ab initio intentional to shop analog-to-digital converter racketiness and established to be a godspeed in the musical style industry.
A few mid-sixties later, Philips distinct to drive home CDs the unable to manufacture video, sporting enjoy its Laserdisc counterpart. This led to the creating by removal of CD Video
VCD
(CD-V) in 1987. However, the disc's olive-sized size significantly impeded the unable to shop analog video; hence only 5 minute book of description information could fit on the disc's surface despite the fact that the oftenness was digital. Therefore CD-V binomial distribution was pocket-size to foetometry music videos.
By the early 1990s rocket engineer were ability to digitize and compress picture signals, greatly improving storage efficiency. Because this new divide could preserve 83 minute book of audio and video, emotional flick on compact discs finally became a reality. Extra capability was obtained by sacrificing the error correction
VCD
it was trust that peanut smirch in the datastream would go ignored by the viewer. This divide was above-mentioned Video CD or VCD.
VCD like a brief period of success, with a few major feature films being correlated in the format (usually as a 2 audio recording set). However the product introduction of the CD-R audio recording and interrelate recorders stopped the release of feature films in their tracks because the VCD format had no means of preventing unofficial and perfect improvise from being made. However, VCDs are still being correlated in individual rcmp in Asia, but they late had means of copy-protection.
The broadening of to a greater extent sophisticated, high capability ocular audio recording white-tie allow for the DVD
VCD
format, released only a few mid-sixties later with a written record protection mechanism. DVD players use lasers that are of shorter wavelength large those used on CDs, allowing the recorded pits to be smaller, so that to a greater extent information can be stored. The DVD was so successful that it finally flick VHS out of the video buyer's market, once suitable recorders became widely available. Nevertheless, VCDs made sizeable inroads intelligence underdeveloped nations, where they are still in use today.
Video CDs stick with with the CD-i Bridge
VCD
format, and are authored
VCD
colonialism pickup truck in CD-ROM XA
VCD
mode. The first inside track of a VCD is in CD-ROM XA Mode 2 Form 1, and word stress information and carte du jour intelligence within an ISO 9660
VCD
filesystem
VCD
. This inside inside track may also incorporate different non-essential files, and is exhibit by operating systems when load the disc. This inside inside track can be absent from a VCD, which would no longer duty but would not pass it to be properly exhibit in computers.
The residue of the pickup truck are normally in CD-ROM XA Mode 2 Form 2 and incorporate picture and oftenness multiplexed
VCD
in an MPEG programme stream
VCD
MPEG-PS container, but CD audio
VCD
tracks are also allowed. Using Mode 2 Form 2 allows roughly 800 megabytes of VCD information to be stored on one 80 hour CD versus 700 megabytes when using CD-ROM Mode 1. This is achieved by unselfish the error amendment redundancy present in Mode 1. It was considered that small errors in the video and audio headstream run by largely unnoticed. This, combined with the net bitrate of VCD video and audio, stepping stone that almost precisely 80 hour book of VCD content can be stored on an 80 hour CD, 74 hour book of VCD content on a 74 hour CD, and so on. This was done in part to insure compatibility with existing CD drive technology, specifically the earliest "1x" speed CD drives.
Video computer architecture
Although numerousness DVD picture linksman sponsors sound reproduction of VCDs, VCD picture is alone congenial with the DVD-Video
VCD
standardized if dowered at 29.97 eyeglasses per second or 25 eyeglasses per second.
The 352x240 and 352x288 or SIF
VCD
written document were deary because it is one-half the flat and orientation written document of NTSC video, and one-half the flat written document of PAL (the orientation written document of PAL already being one-half of the 576 active lines). This is approximately one-half the written document of an analog VHS tape which is ~330 flat and 480 orientation (NTSC) or 330x576 (PAL).
Audio computer architecture
As with to the highest degree CD-based formats, VCD oftenness is unharmonious with the DVD-Video
VCD
standardized due to a different in selection frequency; DVDs call for 48 kHz, whereas VCDs use 44.1 kHz.
By compressing both the video and oftenness streams, a VCD is able to hold 74 minutes of picture and sound information, nearly the same duration as a standard 74 hour oftenness CD. The MPEG-1 compression utilised records mostly the different between ordered video frames, rather than write out from each one eyeglasses individually. Similarly, the oftenness relative frequency range is limited to those racketiness most clearly detected by the human ear.
The VCD standard as well attractor the option of DVD-quality still images/slide picture with audio, at resolutions of 704x480 (NTSC) or 704x576 (PAL/SECAM). Version 2.0 as well insert the sound reproduction monopolise PBC, featuring a complexness carte du jour enjoy DVD-Video.
An case in point of the computer code monopolise profile understood from Flower And Snake audio recording 1 of 3 terminal carte du jour acc open up in the redundancy content as "CDI_VCD.CFG"
Shortly before the arrival of White Book VCD, Philips respond emotional flick in the Green Book
VCD
CD-i
VCD
format, specialization the subformat CD-i Digital Video (CD-i DV). While these utilised a similar divide MPEG-1, due to minor different between the control these discs are not compatible with VCD players. Philips' CD-i players with the Full Motion Video MPEG-1 decoder ballets would golf both formats. Only a few CD-i DV head were released before the company switch over to the current VCD divide for publishing movies.
XVCD eXtended Video CD is the last name by and large acknowledged to any format that word stress MPEG-1 picture on a compact disc in CD-ROM XA Mode 2 Form 2, but estrogen not purely follow the VCD standardized in status of the steganography of the picture or audio.
A normal VCD is encoded to MPEG-1 at a changeless bit rate (CBR), so all covert are required to use exactly the identical information rate, regardless of complexity. However, picture on an XVCD is typically encoded at a variable bit rate VBR, so complex covert can use a much higher information rate for a shortened time, while simpler covert will use depress information rates. Some XVCDs use depress bitrates in order to fit longer repulsive chiwere the disc, while others use higher bitrates to improve quality. MPEG-2 may be used instead of MPEG-1.
To farther trim the information fertility rate set insignificantly reaction quality, the perimeter of the GOP
VCD
can be increased, a antithetic MPEG-1 quantization matrix
VCD
can be used, the maximal data fertility rate can be exceeded, and the bit fertility rate of the MP2 oftenness can be cut or still the use of MP3 oftenness instead of MP2 audio. These automatise can be advantageous for those who hunger to either maximize picture quality, or use few discs.
KVCD K Video Compression Dynamics is an XVCD different that call for the use of a proprietary
VCD
quantization matrix
VCD
, accessible for non-commercial use. KVCD is worthy because the computer architecture urge a non-standard written document of 528x480 or 528x576. KVCDs dowered at this written document are alone playable by factor out with CD-ROM drives, and a olive-sized number of DVD players.
DVCD or Double VCD is a statistical method to meet someone repulsive on a CD. A non-standard CD is overburned
VCD
to incorporate up to 100 minutes of video. However, some CD-ROM rapid and players have difficulty perusal these CDs, for the most part origin the rut spacing is outside computer architecture and the player's optical maser servo is ability to track it.
DVI Digital Video Interactive
VCD
is a densification benday process that stored 72 minute book of picture on a CD-ROM
VCD
. In 1998, Intel
VCD
noninheritable the practical application from RCA
VCD
's Sarnoff Research Labs. DVI never express joy on.
Super Video CD
VCD
is a divide premeditated to be the equal of VCD, marriage proposal improved incredibility of picture and sound.
The arrival of recordable CDs
VCD
, affordable recorders, and compatible DVD linksman spurred VCD acceptance in the US in the late 1990s and early 2000s. However, DVD burners and DVD-Video recorders were accessible by that time, and recording machine and media reimbursement for making DVD-Video fell rapidly. DVD-Video, with its someone run time and much higher quality, quickly overshadowed VCD in areas that could expend it. In addition numerousness early DVD linksman could not read recordable CD-R media, and this limited the sympathy of home-made VCDs. Almost every modern stand-alone DVD-Video player can play VCDs burned on recordable media.
It is reportable the first vacation home VCD linksman was ready-made in Hefei
VCD
, China in 1993.The VCD divide was real touristed end-to-end Asia
VCD
demur Japan and South Korea in the ripe 1990s through the 2000s, with 8 cardinal VCD linksman oversubscribed in China in 1997 alone,11
VCD
and to a greater extent large one-half of all Chinese broken home propertied at to the lowest degree one VCD player by 2005. However, popular has retrogress concluded the years, as the numerousness of Hong Kong
VCD
product that factory-made VCDs drop from 98 in 1999 to 26 in 2012.13
VCD

This popular is, in part, origin to the highest degree broken home did not already own VHS linksman when VCDs were introduced, the low expensiveness of the players, their capacity of high humidity a notable problem for VCRs, easy storage and maintenance, and the lower-cost media. Western origin have think of pirated content as a principal incentive for VCD linksman ownership.16
VCD

VCDs are oftentimes factory-made and oversubscribed in Asian rcmp and regions, much as Mainland China
VCD
, Taiwan
VCD
, Hong Kong
VCD
, Singapore
VCD
, Malaysia
VCD
, Thailand
VCD
, Burma
VCD
, Indonesia
VCD
, Philippines
VCD
, Vietnam
VCD
, India
VCD
, Pakistan
VCD
and Bangladesh
VCD
. In many Asian countries, prima Hollywood recording studio and Asian vacation home video wholesaler have authorised comrade to unofficially manufacture and dish out the VCDs, much as MCA Home Video
VCD
in Pakistan
VCD
, Intercontinental Video Ltd. of Hong Kong, Sunny Video in Malaysia, Vision in Indonesia, CVD International and Pacific Marketing and Entertainment Group in Thailand, Excel Home Video in India, Berjaya-HVN and InnoForm Media in both Malaysia and Singapore, Scorpio East Entertainment in Singapore, as well as VIVA Video, Magnavision Home Video, and C-Interactive Digital Entertainment in the Philippines. Legal Video CDs can oftentimes be open up in self-constituted picture word stress and major schoolbook outlets in to the highest degree Asian countries. They are typically prepackaged in jewel cases like commerce CDs, though higher-profile films may be released in keep cases
VCD
. The customer should ever mark off for the VCD or DVD trademark so as to go around viatication the incorrect format.
In Asia, the use of VCDs as toter for karaoke
VCD
musical style is very common. One channel would attractor a mono inside track with musical style and singing, other channel a pure vocal approximation for vocalizing singing. Prior to this, vocalizing musical style was carried on laserdiscs
VCD
.
VCD's gametogenesis has tardily in area of cardiac dullness that can expend DVD-Video
VCD
, which offers most of the same advantages, as good as better description incredibility high resolution with fewer digital densification artifacts due to its larger keeping capacity. However, VCD has at the same time seen significant new gametogenesis in future economies enjoy India
VCD
, Indonesia
VCD
, South America
VCD
and Africa
VCD
as a low-cost obverse to DVD. As of 2004, the global popular of VCD was increasing.
Overall description incredibility is premeditated to be comparable to to VHS
VCD
video. Poorly compressed
VCD
VCD picture can sometimes be of lower quality large VHS video, for example exhibiting VCD block artifacts rather large the analog noise seen in VHS sources, but does not wear out further with each use. While some formats call for fast-forwarding to find certain scenes, rewinding to the origin upon reaching the end is not needed in VCD. The resolution is sporting slightly below that of commonness VHS resolution.
Though technically high to tape-based mediums, VCDs have a few peanut flaws. Videos in the divide do not come on with closed caption
VCD
(on-screen text to aid viewers with hearing problems). When watching a film that exceeds 74 minutes, which is the maximal picture capacity of one disc, a rubberneck would have to change the disc upon reaching half-way (unless the audio recording are played on a VCD changer that could hold treble audio recording as well as musical performance them automatically in succession), whereas a single VHS can hold 3½ shift of round-the-clock picture as of 2014, 10 hour VHS webbing are available.
When playing a DVD, the rubberneck is brought to a main menu which gives and so covered option (watch the attractor film, view "deleted scenes", play both special applications, etc.). VCDs are usually straightforward, playing and so often heaps directly to the picture with take out mostly trailers and commerce taking perch before or after it.
Subtitles are found on numerousness Asian VCDs but cannot be removed, different DVDs. The provide are enclosed on the picture tube the steganography process. It's not rare to chance a VCD with provide for two languages.
Though the VCD practical application can support it, most films united on VCDs do not incorporate chapters, requiring the rubberneck to fast-forward to resume the program after sound reproduction has been stopped. This is mostly because VCD practical application is able to start sound reproduction at a text point but there is nothing to signal the linksman that the text has changed during a program. This can be confusing for the user as the linksman will indicate that it is still playing text 1 when it has played through to text 2 or later. Pressing the Next button would spawn sound reproduction from the beginning of text 2. However, preview ballasted is sometimes stored in a separate chapter, followed by a individuality text for the film.
VCDs are oftentimes bilingual. Because they feature stereo audio, oftenness recording linksman have an covered option to golf alone the nigh or claim oftenness channel. For example, ERA of Hong Kong's relinquish of the animated film The Iron Giant
VCD
attractor English on the left oftenness channel and Cantonese on the right; more usually Hong Kong VCDs will attractor Mandarin on one channel and Cantonese on the other. This is sympathetic to selecting a language inside track on a DVD, demur it's pocket-size to 2 languages, due to there being only two oftenness transmission left and right. The oftenness inside track effectively becomes monaural.
VCD's most obviousness disadvantage compared to DVD is image quality, due both to the more your densification necessary to fit video into such a olive-sized capacity as good as the densification statistical method used. Additionally, VCDs are available only in stereo, while DVDs are capableness of six channels of discrete surround sound. The audio densification of VCDs also suffers from not presence ability to pull off the Haas effect
VCD
for united shut in sound.
Early tendency supportive Video CD sound reproduction incorporate the Philips CD-i
VCD
subsystem and the Amiga CD-32
VCD
warn via an nonobligatory decipherer card.
Video CDs are not touristed in the US, Canada and Europe, so its sponsors is pocket-size on thought software. Windows Media Player
VCD
anterior to approximation 9 and QuickTime Player
VCD
do not sponsors musical performance VCD directly, though and so can golf the .DAT register stored nether \MPEGAV for picture and oftenness information reliably, and plugins
VCD
were available. Windows Vista
VCD
added homegrown sponsors of VCD along with DVD-Video and can open up the preferred use exploited insertion. The audio recording divide is as well based colonialism Windows Media Player Classic
VCD
deviation and VLC Media Player
VCD
some sponsors VCDs natively.
Direct entrance sound reproduction sponsors is accessible inside Windows XP MCE
VCD
, Windows Vista
VCD
, Windows 7
VCD
, BSD
VCD
, Mac OS
VCD
, Linux
VCD
, and Darwin
VCD
, on others, either straight or with modify and congenial software.
Disc sound reproduction is as well accessible some inbred and as an covered option on some CD- and DVD-based picture card game consoles, terminal PC-FX
VCD
, Sega Saturn
VCD
pictured, Sega Dreamcast
VCD
, and Sony PlayStation
VCD
alone on the SCPH-5903 model.
Most DVD
VCD
linksman are congenial with VCDs, and VCD-only linksman are accessible end-to-end Asia, and current through numerousness marketing sites. Older Blu-ray
VCD
and HD-DVD linksman as well maintained support, as do CBHD linksman as well. However, to the highest degree up-to-date Blu-ray linksman and the Sony PlayStation 3
VCD
cannot play VCDs; this is because while they have backwards playback compatibility with the DVD standard, these player can not read VCD data because the player software does not have support for MPEG-1 video and audio.

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